Valentine’s Day History
Pagan festivals, Christian saints, Chaucer’s love birds, and the Greeting Card Association of America
by Borgna Brunner
The history of Valentine’s Day is obscure, and further clouded by various fanciful legends. The holiday’s roots are in the ancient Roman festival of Lupercalia, a fertility celebration commemorated annually on February 15. Pope Gelasius I recast this pagan festival as a Christian feast day circa 496, declaring February 14 to be St. Valentine’s Day.
Which St. Valentine this early pope intended to honor remains a mystery: according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, there were at least three early Christian saints by that name. One was a priest in Rome, another a bishop in Terni, and of a third St. Valentine almost nothing is known except that he met his end in Africa. Rather astonishingly, all three Valentines were said to have been martyred on Feb. 14.
Most scholars believe that the St. Valentine of the holiday was a priest who attracted the disfavor of Roman emperor Claudius II around 270. At this stage, the factual ends and the mythic begins. According to one legend, Claudius II had prohibited marriage for young men, claiming that bachelors made better soldiers. Valentine continued to secretly perform marriage ceremonies but was eventually apprehended by the Romans and put to death. Another legend has it that Valentine, imprisoned by Claudius, fell in love with the daughter of his jailer. Before he was executed, he allegedly sent her a letter signed “from your Valentine.” Probably the most plausible story surrounding St. Valentine is one not focused on Eros (passionate love) but on agape (Christian love): he was martyred for refusing to renounce his religion.
In 1969, the Catholic Church revised its liturgical calendar, removing the feast days of saints whose historical origins were questionable. St. Valentine was one of the casualties.
Chaucer’s Love Birds
It was not until the 14th century that this Christian feast day became definitively associated with love. According to UCLA medieval scholar Henry Ansgar Kelly, author of Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine, it was Chaucer who first linked St. Valentine’s Day with romance.
In 1381, Chaucer composed a poem in honor of the engagement between England’s Richard II and Anne of Bohemia. As was the poetic tradition, Chaucer associated the occasion with a feast day. In “The Parliament of Fowls,” the royal engagement, the mating season of birds, and St. Valentine’s Day are linked:
For this was on St. Valentine’s Day,
When every fowl cometh there to choose his mate.
Tradition of Valentine’s Cards
Over the centuries, the holiday evolved, and by the 18th century, gift-giving and exchanging hand-made cards on Valentine’s Day had become common in England. Hand-made valentine cards made of lace, ribbons, and featuring cupids and hearts eventually spread to the American colonies. The tradition of Valentine’s cards did not become widespread in the United States, however, until the 1850s, when Esther A. Howland, a Mount Holyoke graduate and native of Worcester, Mass., began mass-producing them. Today, of course, the holiday has become a booming commercial success. According to the Greeting Card Association, 25% of all cards sent each year are valentines.
DO YOU KNOW THE VIOLENT HISTORY BEHIND VALENTINE’S DAY?
Feb. 14, 2013 3:45 pm Billy Hallowell
For most Americans, Valentine’s Day is a time for chocolates, roses, kisses, and other romantic sentiments. But the holiday’s history is a whole lot gruffer than the lighthearted and traditional practices we celebrate every Feb. 14. In fact, the background is both murky and violent, with a history that is practically impossible to nail down. Of particular confusion is St. Valentine’s identity, as the holiday’s central figure is a bit of an anomaly.
Let’s start with the fact that there was more than one St. Valentine. Catholic tradition honors three individuals who are named either Valentine or Valentinus. These men, all martyrs, purportedly died in shows of bravery — or while defending love (or a mixture of the two). One of the men was a priest in Rome, another was a bishop of Interamna (today this is Terni, Italy) and the third is a martyr who lived in the Roman province of Africa. Each of the men is connected in Catholic tradition to the Feb. 14 date.
According to History.com, one legend claims that Valentine was a priest during the third century. At the time, Emperor Claudius II, a Roman leader, decided to outlaw marriage for young men, alleging that single males made for more viable soldiers. The leader believed that he was having a hard time getting men to join the ranks, because they were tied down to their wives and children — so his solution was to simply do away with matrimonial bliss.
Do the research there is more to this article and video also at : http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/02/14/do-you-know-the-violent-history-behind-valentines-day/
As a Christian, I cannot condone such a day as being acceptable unto our Almighty Creator God. It glorifies Roman tradition, sex, and even homosexuality. Not to mention the over one billion dollars in unhealthy candy sales on this day alone.